Critical Incident Analysis

Successful healthcare professionals have unique capability of enhancing their lifelong learning in line of their duties. Continuing professional development is an essential attribute among the medical practitioners who need to keep themselves up to date to facilitate the quality of services they offer in ensuring wellbeing of the patients. Thus, scholars have identified a range of activities that can enable the clinicians and nurses to execute their CPD programs throughout their lifetime service delivery. For instance, they can adopt work base learning, clinical audit, distant learning or conduct research within their fields of operation. However, the most significant CPD intervention is critical incident analysis. The critical incident analysis employs the use of a model of reflection that offers guidance to an individual through structured process of contemplation. Through it, the health care personnel gains confidence in handling dilemmas and difficult decisions that befall them whenever they are undertaking their duties. Critical incident analysis has proven fruitful during professional practice and the understanding of legal and ethical implications within a doctor’s professional life.

The Significant Incident during Group Work and Presentation

The major incident during our group presentation was a disruptive noise from other group members. Initially, everything was in order especially during the preparation prior to the actual group presentation. Having been tasked to research on the Roles and Responsibilities of a Multidisciplinary team, we assigned ourselves selected topics. I chose to discuss the duties of Alcohol and Drug workers and describe how they link up their clients in the healthcare facilities. Personally, I was fully prepared and like the rest of the group members, we were ready for the actual presentation. As expected, we settled on one of our members to perform the introduction part. In essence, he was to highlight the discussion topic for the group and provide an insight about what each of us would do in the course of the presentation. The introduction section was well and successful. However, we began experiencing interference when the second group member was making his presentation of his chosen area of interest. The last two presenters were talking loudly that caused distraction of to the subsequent presenters.

Even though we managed to endure the interference and finished our presentation, we failed to articulate our ideas as we had earlier thought. My lecturer for instance, was quick to confirm his worries regarding the quality of our presentation. She had known us to be very potential but insisted we did not impressed. Being the third in line to present, the level of disruption had grown intensity hence undermining my extent of articulation. The noise had grown to the extent it became some serious obstacle. In the long run, I could feel how the talking tampered with my capability. Nevertheless, we all managed to complete the task despite the extent of hindrance our own members caused. Actually, the whole presentation was not the best of what I had intended to deliver. I became disoriented and this was entirely detrimental in nature.

Critical Incident Reflective Analysis

According to Sarah Bolton 2016, a critical incident analysis is the ability to reflect upon an event or situation in a manner likely to enable them to consider their action and consequences. Thus, it gives room for a person to contemplate over critical decisions that may help in saving someone’s life. The UK Essays publishers believe that critical incident reflective analysis is instrumental in whenever there is need to study an incident while using a model of reflection. As a result, it allows a person to evaluate and derive sensible information regarding the incident before making relevant conclusions about the learning outcomes (Helyer, pp 18, 2015). In fact, both the reflection as well as the reflective practice has become a common phenomenon in nursing as well as midwifery teaching. They are essential tools that have proven effective in enhancing learning in health care profession as it facilitates the integration of the theory and the practice in different contexts. For instance, in our case, the incident was the noise that emancipated from the last two group members. Studies have indicated that the absence of structure could result in students’ dissatisfaction or even psychological disturbance.

In particular, I will use Gibbs reflective writing cycle to facilitate my sequential and systematic thinking. In his article, Gibbs supplied six steps that would enhance the analysis of the major events. Besides, it is an efficient tool that can encourage the continuing professional development (CPD). The steps include: Description where the concerned personnel describes the events that occurred and how they happened. In the review of feelings, I will essentially highlight what I thought about the interference from the group members who were talking during the group presentation (Harrison & Lee, pp 200, 2011). Others include evaluation, analysis, and conclusion and action plan. In my view, the use of Gibbs cycle would provide an appropriate platform that can enhance vivid review of my experience during the presentation. Therefore, it will allow me to access an avenue through which I can relate the major occurrences and the possible causes while at the same time focus on the available solutions to such incidences.


As described earlier, the major incident was about the disruptive noise that originated during our group presentation. As other members continued to talk in the process of presentation, I lost my concentrated and eventually had poor quality presentation. Thus, I considered investigating what could facilitate such behaviors among my colleague students. As a result, my analysis involved the psychometric tests that investigates individual mental capabilities and as well as the behavioral styles. Prior to our group presentation, we had selection of members based on our out-of-class relationships. Indeed, we settled on those individuals who were generally close to us in one way or another (“, 2011”). Therefore, it provides a suitable model for psychometric analyses that have been designed to assess an individual’s suitability for any role – in this case, group discussion. In most cases, it depends on a person’s personality and cognitive abilities (aptitude).

Normally, the group discussion is a tool used to determine the general behavior tips among students. The most commonly tested traits include the listening skills, the social skills and the problem solving capability. In our case, we settled on Roles and Responsibilities of a Multidisciplinary Team (Helyer, pp 19, 2015). Like in job interviews, the group discussion involves an assessor – the lecturer who investigates the team members’ behavior and compares to what he or she considers as the standard one. Now, when my group members began talking during presentation, it raised several concerns regarding the first and second presenters. For instance, may be they were boring or were disorganized. Similarly, they could be taking longer time while presenting their selected sections. Thus, it initiates the feeling as expressed by our lecturer and myself.


Like my lecturer, I felt the noise disoriented and affected my capability to produce my best finding from the study. In essence, during the preparation for a group discussion, certain principles apply. For instance, any group member must contribute to the selected topic. Nearly all of us were vast in representing the group following our earlier preparation. During my turn, I felt like I had lost the grip of my body language (Helyer, pp 18, 2015). When the second group member had taken over, the last two people focused in talking among themselves in a loud a voice that distracted my concentration. In other words, I was unable to maintain my eye contact and failed to monitor my demonstrative capacities such us the use of gestures and nods of agreements. Honestly, I underperformed in major areas such as being able to communicate my points and team working. My fears were approved by my lecturer who confirmed our group did not deliver as expected. In fact, she indicated almost none of us managed to influence other students by persuading them to accept our view on the Roles and Responsibilities of a Multidisciplinary Team.


In my view, our group discussion failed due to two main issues. First, we hardly understood how to effectively manage conflicts among the members. As the second member was making his presentation, he developed a tendency of direct confrontation and name-calling with other group members. As a result of this conduct, the affected individuals began revolting by eliciting unnecessary discussion away from the topic (Panda, pp 65, 2004). In essence, we were supposed to allow every member an ample to speak and express themselves reliably. It is only through this that we would have avoided participating in aggressive and rude showmanship. Secondly, having been disoriented, I am sure I failed to manage well my time. I was generally confused and wanted a way of addressing the students without fueling more noise during my chance. In so doing, I concentrated in pleasing my fellow students other than focusing on my selected topic. Overall, the disturbance could also arise from the fact that our respective research areas had personal influence on other people. Touching on drug and alcohol abuse could appear as a target to the majority of students who have fallen victims of the menace. Thus, by discussing how the Alcohol and Drug Workers were able to link the clients to the healthcare facilities could as well be interpreted as a target to the addicts, some of whom were group members.

Nevertheless, despite the huddles we faced, we managed to eventually complete the presentation of our topic. Our success originated from several factors including being team players. As expected, group discussion exercises require deliberate agreement among members on certain issues (Helyer, pp 20, 2015). For example, we managed to assign each of us specific areas of research, identify the order through which we would present and availing ourselves to conclude on the findings. Such a team working environment provided confidence in some of our speakers and allowed them to learn new ideas in the process. Secondly, we included every member in identification and selection of the area of study as well as in ensuring each member selected an area of interest. It played a role in fostering our body language and communication skills necessary for scoring average grades.


As indicated previously, a critical incident refers to something that happens either positively or negatively thus forcing a person to rethink about it. For instance, in a healthcare setting, such events include medication errors or wrong diagnosis. In our case, the incident remains the disruptive noise that originated from some of the group members (Panda, pp 65, 2004). Therefore, the Critical Incident Analysis is a crucial aspect that can facilitate reflective learning or practice. It achieves this by enabling the students as well as the professionals to explore their reactions about certain topics. Other than playing a critical role in professional portfolio, the critical incident analysis can as well serve as a tool needed for evidence-based studies. In any way, it is a necessity both in learning and in practice.

Like a job market, learning is a dynamic process that keeps changing. Thus, for students to fit in the school life, they must embrace adaptive attributes needed for the changing roles. Thus, it requires continuous learning for one to remain relevant both at school and at work point. Every student needs to adopt the skill of being ready to learn at repeated intervals. Students can boost their reflective skills so that they can appreciate their experience through practice. It can be a significant intervention in that it allows them to foster the ongoing program based on the available information and the knowledge they have gained from their experience (Panda, pp 65, 2004). So far, studies have indicated that critical incident analysis is most effective when it involves other people so that there is efficient collaboration of ideas about how to improve performance. In our case, having a critical reflection and sharing about our findings was generally frightening and could possibly be the cause of talking among other group members. In fact, it was responsible for our feelings of vulnerability to expose our thoughts as expected of us. Fortunately, working in group and having a network with other students offered the support we eagerly needed to help deal with our anxieties. Eventually, we learnt the art of listening to others and being able to act upon criticism.

The Action Plan

The major action plan should be based on teaching reflective skills both in academia as well as work-based learning programs. It has gained steady importance in developing strong professional beginnings especially in nursing and other health related courses. Furthermore, it has become apparent that the practice can generate effectiveness among work-based learners. For instance, I would initiate vital changes in the curriculum to help in capturing teaching of reflective skills. It can be possible making it a mandatory for students to compile reflective essays, portfolios, diaries and journals as part of their assignments (“, 2011”). Furthermore, I would ensure student handbooks contain information that could help other learners about how to implement reflection. For example, lecturers could use the induction sessions to describe the stories of successful students. Besides, the classes should also have periods when students are introduced to learning theories and styles, self-analysis of strength and weaknesses and meta-cognition attributes. Often, engagement in these aspects will enable students to write about their personal statements, something that could be important in the near future.

Furthermore, there is also need to establish work-based learning programs that covers active reflection in major modules. Thus, it can become a requisite for students to compile a series of short narrative statements that entail their reflection of their learning process both at school and at work. In fact, these activities will promote the development of reflective practitioners who are able to share their thoughts and situational analysis with their work colleagues. In my view, these interventions will eventually make it a norm for people, whether students or workers to constantly reflect, plan and develop based on their professional requirements (“, 2011”). Therefore, they will obviously adopt a culture of revisiting the manner in which activities need to be conducted other than remaining focused on the traditional routines. Essentially, there is need to implement models that would encourage teachers to give instructions to students to enable learners to reflect about what they have done or leaned. For instance, the use of Gibbs Cycle will enable learners to reflect on concrete experiences as well as abstract concepts about their lives. In reality, it will focus on the feelings, senses and thought processes of the students. As a result, it will provide an opportunity for them to be attentive to the information while using the same information to influence the lives of others.


Healthcare professionals are people whose daily lives involve actions that can determine whether their clients will live or perish. Ranging from wrong diagnosis to medication errors, the dangers could be detrimental to the wellbeing of patients. As a result, they are supposed to be in constant learning to identify the significant incident and reflect upon it to prevent further damage to human life. Using Gibbs Cycle as tool to enhance reflective learning, most of the professionals will develop a norm of reconsidering their steps other than depending on the old ways of doing things. The cycle provides sequences through which one can reflect on both the learning and job dynamics brought about by changes in the technology and global recession. The cycle gives the students a chance to describe what they consider as the critical incident, portray their feeling, perform an evaluation of its positive and negative impacts of the incident as well as to analyze the situation it presents in real life.

Reference List (2011). Reflective writing: About Gibbs reflective cycle – Oxford Brookes University. [online] Available at:

Harrison, J. and Lee, R. (2011). Exploring the use of critical incident analysis and the professional learning conversation in an initial teacher education programme. Journal of Education for Teaching, 37(2), pp.199-217.  

Helyer, R. (2015). Learning through reflection: the critical role of reflection in work-based learning (WBL). Journal of Work-Applied Management, 7(1), pp.15-27. Panda, S., 2004. Reflection and continuing professional development: implications for online distance learning. Indian Journal of Open Learning, 13(1), pp.63-78.

Theoretical Approaches in Sociology

The interactionist, functionalist, and conflict theoretical approaches on society give different perspectives of an individual, social change as well as social order.  The three theories in different ways hold different perspectives on how they look at an individual and society as a whole (Schaefer, 2010).

Functionalist theory views society in a positive way as being stable and having all the parts working together as one and hence, every social aspect of a society plays a vital role in ensuring society’s survival. In analyzing individual, functionalist views people as socially molded, and not imposed to do their societal roles. Thus, functionalist theory main idea is on the cooperation of members of a society since it brings stability (Schaefer, 2010).

The TV reality shows allow people who are different within a society to watch a common show and can communicate with each other as longtime friends. However, it can impact an individual negatively as one tries to enumerate an outrageous action of the characters within the show hence molding a person’s behavior socially through interactions with the TV stars.

Conflict theory views society as being in continuous struggle and that one can only understand the social behavior of individuals through their conflicts. It views individual characters being as a result of influence by the authority, and that people maintain social order through force. Under the conflict perspective, social change keeps on taking place constantly, and this always brings some kind of conflict as people keep on competing with each other and due to social inequality (Schaefer, 2010).

The conflict theory brings an entertaining aspect to the reality TV shows. For instance, in a football competition where two teams compete with each other and the winning team gets a prize. Also, some TV programs show people competing for resources and power, but eventually end up relating easily as they overcome their daily struggles.

The interactionist perspective looks at how different small groups of people work in terms of behaviors and how they react to other people’s actions, material things as well as symbols. The theory studies social behavior on a small scale.  According to this theory, people influence each other’s daily social interactions and one is capable of creating own social world through interactions and that a society maintains order through sharing of how people understand other’s daily behavior. Also, that social change within a society occurs when peoples’ position and communication with each other change through symbols and objects (Schaefer, 2010).

Reality TV shows make people compare their actions and behaviors with those of the show’s stars. The people end up developing either negative or positive feeling based on the attributes they compare and what they can justify. At times, one might have to change in order to fit into the society, and mostly get influenced by the actions of the TV stars. Thus, the way people interact with the reality TV shows affects the society’s behaviors as a whole.

Social imagination refers to how people relate with the surrounding through analyzing of the present and past effect of an individual’s life choices, and behaviors within the society as a result of influence by both external and internal factors.  Mills argues that a person with sociological imagination is in a position to understand and learn from personal experiences and that of others who are facing same situations (Swedberg, 2012).

The issue of producing nuclear weapons by North Korea has been part of the leading headlines for most newspapers and news and in most nations globally. America under the leadership of Donald Trump has been opposing North Korea’s move and this has put the two countries under conflict. America argues that manufacturing of the Nuclear weapons is a threat to the whole world and that North Korea should get rid of them or else America to attack the country in an effort to stop the manufacturing. On the other hand, North Korea is arguing that it is making the weapons to safeguard itself and has no intentions attacking any innocent country, and President Kim says no one can dictate on what his government can do or not (David, 2017).

In this case, the two countries should apply the sociological imagination to analyze the society at large and decide whether they want to stand in human history and continually keep on conflicting over the weapons. The two countries should initiate a dialogue and discuss the issue in dilemma and look for the right solutions that would not affect their citizens. However, without using sociological imagination the conflict between America and North Korea over nuclear weapon production might never cease to exist.


David, E. (2017, November 29). Washington Eyes a Cold war Strategy against North Korea. The New York Times post.

Schaefer,T. (2010). “Sociology: 12th Edition” New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. pp.13-16

Swedberg, R. (2012). Theorizing in sociology and social science: Turning to the context of discovery. Theory and society41(1), 1-40.

Discuss the Impact of Hellenism on the Making of a Greater Afro-Eurasian World

Discuss the Impact of Hellenism on the Making of a Greater Afro-Eurasian World

What are the main ideas associated with Hellenism?  To what extent did these ideas influence the areas that Alexander conquered?  To what extent were Greek ideas related to the rise of slavery and plantation economies in the Mediterranean?  What goods did slaves produce? Where were their goods traded?

Forced Resettlement and the Creation of Diasporas and Refugees

The correlation between forced migration, ethnicity and the return resettlement remains unexplored by the scholars. However, certain Empires and other ancient states had preferential policies that facilitated the eviction of co-ethnics (Ho, 2013). It was a common practice in Assyria and China to pave way for more lands for agriculture. Often, the co-ethnic communities were intentionally labeled as refugees and returnees. In Ancient China for instance, there were metaphors regarding the extraterritorial kinship that enjoyed the privileges of the authorities. Conversely, following their cultural exclusiveness, the co-ethnics faced the socio-spatial exclusion in the eyes of the rulers (Ho, 2013). As a consequence, the displaced groups face myriads of challenges including generational realignments, geopolitical impacts, and health risks especially due to poor living conditions.  In essence, these interventions have resulted in gross violation of human rights and undermining the presence of the minority groups.

Religion and the Early Political Structures

The interconnection between religion and politics continue to elicit reactions in political philosophy. For some, there is need for distinction between religious belief and the state affairs. However, religion often makes claims regarding people’s allegiance that come as a universal perspective (Ortner, 1989). For instance, the Muslims believe that all people owe their obedience to the Allah. Now, the establishment of the Early Chinese Empire involved the unification of the Qin and Han dynasties. Their imperial structure involved the combination of the Legalist considerations and that of the Confucian. The emergence of Buddhism in China opened up several other trade routes and resulted in the rise of more stable dynasties especially after the disintegration of the Hans.

What can be Learnt from the Ancient Law Codes

A legal code was an essential feature in every political system in the ancient times. The earliest ones being the Sumerian Code of Ur-Nammu of c. 2100 to 2050 BCE and the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi of c. 1650 BCE. In most cases, these codifications were limited in scope thereby failing to describe the exhaustive legal systems of the target kingdoms and empires. Nevertheless, most of these codes enhanced ethical behaviors in the societies (Maine, 1906). For instance, the written as well as the oral Hebrew Torah of 200 CE highlighted the penalties on individuals who would breach certain behaviors. Similarly, the Tang Dynasty of ancient China developed the Criminal code that regulated unnecessary acts such as rape, murder and other culturally unaccepted conducts (Maine, 1906). In the United States, there have been significant influences of the Continental legal code that expresses itself through codification and civil law jurisdictions.  

How the Chariots Changed the Ancient World

Chariot was a light vehicle that moved on two wheels, drawn by one or two horses. Often, the chariot carried two people – the driver and the fighter. The invention of chariots provided a moving platform during battles allowing the soldiers to shoot either the arrow or the javelin at their enemies from a distance. It enhanced movement into and out of the war zones. Thus, it served as a tool through which Kingdoms would conquer new territories while protecting the existing boundaries. For instance, the Hittites developed their first kingdom in the c. 1700 BCE using the chariots (Casson, 1994). Moreover, other ancient people could employ the use of horse-driven chariots in hunting. People would shoot at animals then follow them up using the chariots. Finally, the use of chariots contributed immensely in the establishment of sporting activities such as the Roman Circus Maximus that dominated the empire between c.1700 BCE and 500 BCE.

Execution Case Analysis

In today’s world business, execution is amongst the great unaddressed matters by most organizations. Putting an execution environment in business is a hard thing that most organizations are facing.  It is a big obstacle to success of the business, and leads to other issues that are mistakenly attributed to other problems that face businesses.  A lot of organizations fall victim to the gap between the results they deliver and the promises they have made to their investors. Execution refers to the techniques and behaviors that businesses have to master so as to have a competitive advantage. It is really a discipline that is critical for both small and big businesses for their success (Bossidy et al., 2012).

Execution is important since it helps a manger in an organization to select a more robust strategy. Managers cannot craft a valuable strategy if they do not at the same time make sure their companies has or can afford what they require to execute, including the right personnel and resources. Managers have a responsibility to design strategies that the organizations use as roadmaps to pursue success than the complex paths supplemented in fat arrangement books. That way, the leaders are in a position to respond quickly when anything unusual happens as their strategies are designed to be executed (Bossidy et al., 2012).

Another reason why execution is important is because it speeds up everything. Executions allows a leader to view what is going within the industry and allows the best transition better than the philosophy and culture. The businesses that are execution-oriented changes rapidly compared to their counterparts in the same situation. Businesses survive hard times through making important changes and only succeed if they execute well (Bossidy et al., 2012).

The Execution Difference vs. Building Block

In most cases, mangers might have a mind that all they do within the company is right; however this might not always be the case. At times there exists gap between the leaders goals and ambitions and the realities of the company, and when a mistake occurs they tend to blame other people working under different departments (Bossidy et al., 2012).

In the pursuit of rising to the top, the manager might get caught up in the intellectual excitement of big ideas that comes out and adopt them with a lot of eagerness.  However, the might manager fails to consider how to get things done in the right way, but thinks that somebody else would think about it.  A lot of people always find it difficult to understand how to correctly convert a vision into specific responsibilities, because of their broad high-level of intelligence.  Hence, lack of engagement by leaders deprives them a sound judgment about other personnel within an organization that can only happen through the practice (Bossidy et al., 2012).

It is important for the organization leaders to employ the discipline of execution considering all the set of building blocks to help them in designing, implementing, and operating effectively. The building blocks are essential behaviors by leaders since they help them to fill the execution difference by providing an operational definition of the framework for cultural change and obtaining the right persons for the right jobs.  The leader must know their people and business by being present to connect personally with the people hence building intuitive feeling for the business.  The leader must put realism as a priority and account for both the weakness and strength of the business at equal level (Bossidy et al., 2012).

The leaders must set clear goals and priorities that all persons can understand and hence allowing them to execute them without any difficulties.  Also, it is important for leaders to reward people as they ends up producing only the targeted results. Leaders should also consider training and coaching people to increase their capabilities, which in turn increases their capacity to undertake different tasks. Further, the leaders should create a framework for cultural change that links to improving the company’s outcomes as change of cultural within an organization only gets real if the company’s aim is execution (Bossidy et al., 2012).

According to Colin Powell it is not all actions that the leaders undertakes can make everyone happy as some people ends up getting angry at the leaders’ actions and decisions. Thus, a leader at times has to make tough decisions that might end up confronting certain people, which will not serve them well. As trying to please everyone might result in angering up the most creative and productive persons within an organization (Harari, 2002).

            Powell’s perspective on leadership links to Larry Bossidy’s execution idea in a number of ways, especially as outlined in the building blocks. According to the two author’s, leaders should only give reward to the worthy persons in spite of what others might think about. Also, the two belies that leaders should insist on realism, and not to fear challenging pros even at their own departments as this would allow them to learn and make the correct execution. Another similarity pointed out by both is on the need of the leader to know the business and people, as Powell argues that leaders must always remain vigilant  even when other people within the organization seems distracted. However, the two disagrees on the execution difference as Powell believes that leaders should keep on trying different capabilities until they get what they want while Larry Bossidy believes that leaders should employ essential behaviors that work within the framework for cultural change to obtain the right persons for the right jobs.


Bossidy, L., Charan, R., & Burck, C. (2011). Execution: The discipline of getting things done. Random House.

Harari, O. (2002). The leadership secrets of Colin Powell. McGraw Hill Professional.

Labor-Management Co-Operation Case Analysis

Labor-Management Co-Operation Case Analysis

The previous protocol did not allow the management and union to approach each other directly. However, the Department of Public Works’ Bureau of Management-Employee Services was the intermediary through which the two bodies interacted and was viewed as a protecting agency to the labor relations. The body would listen and watch over for any instances that would result in breaching of the rules that govern the labor-management relations for the city. The need for new work standards was among the reasons that pushed the management and union to working together as any decisions would have impacted the conditions of employment of the workers. The union had interests in ensuring that that new work formula would ensure its members job security while the management had to ensure that the changes would not affect the efficiency of the collection (The Electronic Hallway, 1996).

McGuire faces a number of operational challenges in an attempt to reform refuse collection including dealing with downtime, overtime and vehicle availability. McGuire faced poor vehicle availability which was a major lead to downtime, where a lot of people although remaining at work would not perform any job-related work. Closing of City’s landfill before the collection shift is over resulted in some trucks remaining with the trash up to the following day. Also, there was poor maintenance and servicing of the vehicles which resulted in frequent breakdowns. McGuire argues that regardless of the cause for the poor availability of the vehicles, the overall result was inefficiencies which affected the rate at which refuse was being collected and how the payment of overtime was conducted (The Electronic Hallway, 1996).

The issues contributing to the cost of the agency and the pressure to run more like a business included both economic and political conditions. Economically, the pressure aimed at increasing efficiency by lowering the costs through injecting competition into the delivery of the city services. The city leadership felt that it was paying too much, yet the refuse collection services were not worth what the city was spending. also, during the campaign the mayor had made promise that he would make the city government to run as businesslike, and had viewed that privatization of the refuse collection services would lead to fulfilling part of his campaign promises to increase police protection(The Electronic Hallway, 1996).

The talk of privatization affects David Trowbridge’s considerations and actions in that an assurance that no worker would lose job after privatization was an added sacrifice as workers had gone without a raise since the expiring of the previous contract. The union was under pressure to push for job security by asking the city to refrain from further contracting of under the Local 347 employees. However, he was aware that contract was only going to bring short-term protection of the workers and effective addressing of the present interest that the mayor was intending to solve through privatization would only have happened by dealing with the expenses of the municipal services (The Electronic Hallway, 1996).

Trowbridge responds to the pressure by agreeing to hold a meeting with McGuire and Spencer where they both came to an agreement on the issue of a new work standard that had secured new contract bargaining that would allow him to pursue job security for the municipal works The Electronic Hallway, 1996). It was this way that Trowbridge as a representative of the union and McGuire, representing management developed a viable work standard, which ensured efficiency, and at the same time protecting the municipal workers and eventually overcoming the threats of privatization of municipal services by the Mayor.


The Electronic Hallway. (1996). Labor-Management Cooperation At The Los Angeles Bureau of Sanitation (A).